Sunday, February 26, 2006

Analysis of Pusztai Study on GM Potatoes and their effect on Rats

Analysis of Pusztai Study on GM Potatoes and their effect on Rats

By Dr. Nina V. Fedoroff
Willaman Professor of Life Sciences and Evan Pugh Professor
Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences (
201 Life Sciences Building
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802


On August 10th, 1998, Arpad Pusztai of the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen, Scotland appeared on the British TV show "World in Action." In the course of the interview, he announced that his experiments showed that rats fed a diet of potatoes expressing a gene coding for a snowdrop sugar-binding protein showed stunted growth and reduced immune function (Enserink, Science 281.1184). He is further quoted as saying that he would not eat GM food and that he found it "very, very unfair to use our fellow citizens as guinea pigs" (Lee and Tyler, 1999).

The study made headlines around the world. According to Science’s Martin Enserink, the Rowett Institute was flooded with calls from reporters even before the show aired. He quotes Rowett director Philip James saying that the Institute was faced with “a megacrisis we didn't remotely anticipate.” James is said to have examined the experiments and found them a total “muddle.” Pusztai’s laboratory was sealed, his notebooks were turned over to an audit committee and Pusztai was put on indefinite leave – he was out of a job. The audit committee’s report, released in October of 1998, concluded that Pusztai’s data did not support the conclusion that the transgenic plants had a deleterious effect on growth, organ development, or immune function in rats.

Pusztai, whom Rowett had been forbidden to talk to the press, got in touch with a number of scientists and asked them to review the audit report and his rebuttal to it, as well as a transcript from the World in Action show (Enserink, Science 283:1094-5). On February 12 1999, Professors Edilbert van Driessche and Thorkild C. Bøg-Hansen, colleagues who had collected the responses, issued a memorandum supported by more that 20 other scientists who had studied Dr. Pusztai's findings (Lee and Taylor, 1999).

Their memorandum stated (the following is largely verbatim from the WSWS website): "Those of us who have known Dr. Pusztai's work or have collaborated with him, were shocked by the harshness of his treatment by the Rowett and even more by the impenetrable secrecy surrounding these events. It is an unacceptable code of practice by the Rowett and its Director, Professor James, to set themselves up as arbiters or judges of the validity of the data which could have such a profound importance not only for scientists, but also for the public and its health." The memorandum concludes, "There is no doubt in our minds that the reviews will remove the stigma of alleged fraud and will restore Dr. Pusztai's scientific credibility."

One of the scientists who reviewed Pustzai's work, Dr. Vyvyan Howard, foetal and infant toxico-pathologist at the University of Liverpool, told the World Socialist Web Site, "I am working on some features of lectin toxicity and that is how I came to know Arpad Pusztai, who is certainly one of the world's experts in this field." Dr. Howard said that he believed Dr. Pusztai's data was (sic) sound. "We think it would pass peer review and be published and we are at a loss to really explain why the Rowett Institute came to the conclusion it did." Dr. Howard added that Pusztai's findings "are of considerable importance in the current debate on the safety and hazard assessment of genetically modified foods".

Professor S. Pierzynowski, from the Department of Animal Physiology, Lund University, Sweden, said, " I must stress that there is enough strong evidence that the work of the audit group was not objective and per se dangerous, not only for Dr. Pusztai, but generally for free and objective science." Joe Cummins, Emeritus Professor of Genetics at the University of Western Ontario, Canada described the Rowett Institute's treatment of Pusztai as "a great injustice", adding that the "Institute continues to look inward to cover up its mistakes".
These eminent scientists have not only raised serious concerns about the way research into GM food is being conducted, but that those who have dissenting voices are being suppressed and have had their careers ruined, and sometimes their health. Dr. Pusztai has suffered a mild heart attack brought on by the stress caused by trying to restore his scientific reputation and the credibility of his research. These concerns were echoed by Dr. Kenneth Lough, FRSE, a former principal scientific officer at the Rowett Institute between 1956 and 1987. He said, "In my view the evidence presented in the audit report must be considered as unsafe and is without justification for use against the scientific reputation of Dr. Pusztai. The Institute is at risk in sending the wrong signals to scientists in this field of research that any sign of apparent default will be treated with the utmost severity. The awareness will of course act as strong deterrent to those who wish to conduct research in this vitally important field." (end of stuff from WSWS).

But a committee of six eminent members of the British Royal Society, set up in April of 1999 to review the Pusztai data, reached the opposite conclusion. The committee sent out the material they received from Pusztai, the Rowett and other sources to scientists with expertise in statistics, clinical trials, physiology, nutrition, quantitative genetics, growth and development, and immunology. The committee reviewed the opinions it received and issued a summary statement in June of 1999. The consensus of these experts was that the experiments were poorly designed, the statistical inappropriate, and the results inconsistent. Their recommendation was that the experiments be repeated and the results published.

Pusztai jumped to his own defense with a detailed response ( He and a colleague with whom he had worked for some years published their study in medical journal Lancet (Ewen and Pusztai, 1999). Lancet, in turn, came under sharp criticism from a number of quarters, including U.K.'s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, which called the journal "irresponsible." But Lancet’s editor, Richard Horton, stood by the publication. Five of 6 reviewers had favored publication and he believed that it was appropriate for the information to be available in the public domain (Enserink, Science 286:656).

So what’s this all about? Why this titanic battle of experts? Why is Pusztai, until this incident considered an authority on the plant proteins called lectins, under such fierce attack? He’s written three books on lectins and published 270 research papers. Moreover, he’d worked at the Rowett Institute for 35 years. On the surface of it, his now-controversial research was perfectly straightforward: he fed genetically modified potatoes expressing a snowdrop lectin to rats and looked to see whether this food affected their physiology, particularly the gut, metabolic process and immune system. What are lectins? Should we worry about them? Should we share Pusztai’s concern and conclusion that genetic engineering itself results in "……possible gene silencing, suppression and/or somaclonal variation"?

The protein in question is called the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin after the Latin name of the snowdrop and it is abbreviated GNA. It was originally isolated from snowdrop bulbs and is a kind of protein that recognizes and bind to sugars on proteins. Such proteins are called ‘lectins’ as a group. Although lectins were first discovered in plants, they are now known to exist in animals in great profusion (Rudiger 2000). Many proteins – in all kinds of organisms – are decorated with sugar molecules – sometimes with long strings or branches of several sugar molecules. Such derivatized proteins are called glycoproteins.

Each glycoprotein has a different complement of sugar molecules, depending on what it does and where it does it. The sugar signature works like a zip code in the cell, determining where the protein is delivered by the machinery that produces it. When such decorations are on the surface – be it of a virus, a bacterium, or a cell – they serve as a recognition molecules. Lectins recognize the sugar molecules with such exquisite correctness and specificity that they have long been used to identify what sugars are present on a protein. Today it is increasingly recognized that the sugar ‘codes’ serve a large variety of internal functions. One of these is recognizing disease organisms.

So, for example, it has been known for a number of years that the AIDS virus HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) has mannose sugars on its surface and the ability of cells to recognize these surface sugars with their own lectins is part of the infectious process (Hammar 1995). Plant lectins like GNA, which recognizes mannose, bind to the virus and inactivate it. They also interfere with its ability to infect cells (Hammar 1995). Because of its ability to bind to these surface sugars, GNA has been used to purify the HIV surface glycoproteins, which were in turn used to produce an immune response, albeit not much of one (Gilljam, 1993). Similarly, Chlamydia trachomatis has surface mannose-containing glycoproteins that allows the organism to infect cells by binding to a surface lectin (Siridewa 1993).

Plants – no less than animals – have mechanisms for defending themselves from microorganisms and insects. Plant produce lectins as one of their defense strategies against insects (Carlini 2002). Indeed, a good deal of evidence has accumulated that GNA, which binds specifically to a sugar called mannose, is rather toxic to certain kinds of insects pests of important crop plants, including rice (Du et al. 2000; Fitches et al., 2001). GNA does not seem to affect ladybird beetles, considered to be a beneficial insect (Down et al., 2000), although it does affect parasitic wasps, also considered to be beneficial insects (Romeis 2003). Some lectins, including ricin, are quite toxic because they’re taken up by cells and block protein synthesis (Olsnes 2001). These are called ribosome-inactivating proteins or RIPs. But GNA doesn’t have this activity (Batelli 1997).

Better yet, Pusztai’s own studies showed that purified GNA wasn’t toxic to rats (Pusztai 1990). In fact, he and his colleagues had shown that GNA had a protective effect against bacterial infection with Salmonella, a nasty intestinal bug (Naughton et al., 2000). All of this made the gene coding for GNA an attractive choice for increasing the insect resistance of crop plants. To test this possibility, the gene was introduced into a number of different crop plants, including potatoes and rice. And it does, indeed, increase their resistance to some important insect pests (Rao 1998; Foissac 2000). Because GNA binds to the surface cells of insects guts and enters their blood stream, it is also thought to have potential as a vehicle for delivering more toxic peptides to insects (Fitches 2002).

Sugar signatures are ubiquitous in biology – and as yet, we know rather little about what they do. It is known, for example, that there are two critical kinds of cells – the T and B cells – that must interact for the body’s immune response to be activated. It has been reported that these interactions occur through a mannose-containing glycoprotein and that this interaction can be blocked by GNA (Savage 1993). Thus some of the same signature sugars central to important cellular functions. Pathogens take advantage of essential intercellular recognition mechanisms to gain a foothold, both by binding to the cell’s own lectins and by evading the immune response because they resemble the cell’s own molecules. So, for example, a lectin called DC-SIGN (dendritic dell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin) binds sugars on the HIV envelope and facilitates infection of its target CD4 T cells (Geijtenbeek 2003).
The DC-SIGN lectin is referred to as an HIV ‘receptor’ because of this specific recognition of HIV, but it is actually a universal pathogen receptor (Geijtenbeek 2003). It normally captures viruses and other pathogens through their sugar-containing protein molecules and pulls them into the cell, where they are broken down and displayed on the cell surface to trigger a protective immune response (Kooyk 2003). HIV hijacks this system. It stays intact when it binds to DC-SIGN and rides along to be presented to its target T4 cells in an infectious form. This is a rather effective evasion system. It makes it quite unlikely that the body will successfully fight back by making antibodies, the body’s proteins that recognize and destroy pathogens. This is because the immune system learns early in life to discriminate between its own proteins and foreign proteins. But one particular HIV glycoprotein, gp120, has a dense cluster of mannose residues that has not been seen in any mammalian glycoprotein (Calarese 2003) and a few HIV patients make good antibodies to this protein. Recent work on one such antibody showed that it binds to the gp120 – the same protein to which DC-SIGN binds to promote viral infection – in a very unusual way. Antibodies generally recognize and bind to just one sugar residue, but this unusual antibody has an extended structure that permits it to recognize more than one mannose residue at a time. This is actually similar to the way that certain lectins recognize sugars because lectins consist of two or more identical proteins, each of which has a sugar-binding site (Hester 1996; Calarese 2003). The discovery of this unusual antibody raises new hope for stimulating the immune system to produce anti-HIV antibodies, immunizing people against AIDS.

But there are many kinds of lectins and they can have quite different effects. For example, Pusztai and his colleagues had reported 10 years earlier that a kidney bean lectin, phytohemagglutinin or PHA, caused the surface cells of rats’ intestines to turn over more quickly (Pusztai 1993). The younger replacement cells on the tiny surface projections – called villi – of the intestinal cells had a high proportion of proteins with mannose sugars at the ends of their sugar signatures. This made the cells more susceptible to bacterial overgrowth with Escherichia coli, a common gut bacterium, because the bacterium has projections – called fimbrae – that recognize and bind to mannose. Including GNA in the diet reduced the extent of bacterial overgrowth because the GNA binds to the mannose on the intestinal cells.
PHA is a normal component of red kidney beans – and people get sick from eating too much of it. Allergist David Freed recounts an incident that occurred in 1988 when a hospital had a “healthy eating day” in its staff canteen at lunchtime (Freed 1999). He recounts that 31 portions of a dish containing red kidney beans were served that day and over the next several hours, 11 customers were experienced profuse vomiting, some with diarrhea – typical food-poisoning symptoms. All recovered by the next day, but no pathogen was found in the food. It turned out that the beans contained an abnormally high concentration of PHA.
There are many different kinds of plant lectins and they are present in most plants, especially abundant in seeds, including cereals and beans, and in tubers, including potatoes. They tend to survive cooking and digestive enzymes. Pusztai and many other investigators have shown that they affect intestinal cells. It isn’t surprising that they occasionally cause symptoms of food poisoning (Freed 1999). As in insects, some can get into and through cells and into the blood stream. Some lectins are also potent allergens. So even through GNA appears to be a relatively benign lectin as evidenced by rat feeding studies, there is absolutely no doubt that a food expressing such a protein needs careful testing, first in animals.

Sensibly, the Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment and Fisheries Department (SOAEFD) commissioned a 3-year study in 1995 titled “Genetic engineering of crop plants for resistance to insect and nematode pests: effects of transgene expression on animal nutrition and the environment.” Its objective was "to identify genes encoding antinutritional factors which will be suitable for transfer into plants to enhance their resistance towards insect and nematode pests, but will have minimum impact on non-target, beneficial organisms, the environment, livestock fed on these plants, and which will present no health risks for humans either directly or indirectly through the food chain." The University of Durham and the Scottish Crop Research Institute were to provide the transgenic plants and the Rowett Research Institute was to do a chemical analysis of the transgenic plant materials. They were also to do both short-term (10 day) and long-term (3 months) rat feeding trials to determine whether the effect of the transgenic plant materials was similar to that of the parent lines.

The chemical analysis of the transgenic plants showed them to be quite different from the parent lines ( – although the audit report curiously concludes that they weren’t ( The researchers measured total protein concentration, as well as the content of several relevant proteins, including GNA, potato lectin and several others. All of these differed between transgenic lines and in comparison with the parental lines. Rats in Pusztai’s study were fed either raw or cooked potatoes. Non-transgenic potatoes were supplemented with GNA. The results showed that rats fed the transgenic potatoes had significantly lower organ weights. They found that GNA added to the potatoes made the animal’s lymphocytes, which are cells in the immune system, more responsive to stimulation by other lectins. By contrast, lymphocyte responsiveness was depressed in the animals fed the transgenic potatoes expressing GNA.
What these studies basically showed was that the transgenic potato lines were different from each other, as well as from the parental potatoes. A later study on transgenic potatoes came to the same conclusion (Down 2001). Here Pusztai jumped to the conclusion that these differences must be attributable to the fact that the plants were transgenic – and he went public with his conclusion. What he probably didn’t know – because he was neither a plant breeder nor a plant biologist – was that the very process through which the plants are put during the introduction of the transgene – culturing through a callus stage and then regeneration of the plant – can cause marked changes in both the structure and expression of genes.

The variation that arises as a result of passage through tissue culture is called “somaclonal variation” and is both a nuisance and a potent source of new materials for plant breeding. The variation is both genetic (single base changes, deletions, insertions, transpositions) and epigenetic – this means modifications that can affect expression of genes, but not their structure. For plant breeders, this means that new materials and new varieties derived using culturing techniques must be evaluated for both their growth and their food properties. This is particularly important for potato breeding, because potatoes produce toxic substances called glycoalkaloids (Kozukue 1999). Glycoalkaloids are normally present in potatoes, can contribute to inflammatory bowel disease, and are concentrated by frying potatoes (Patel 2002). So potato breeders must carefully monitor these compounds, irrespective of the means by which new potato varieties are generated.

Unfortunately, Pusztai’s analyses of the chemical composition of the transgenic lines were rather superficial. And his quick leap to the conclusion that the variation he observed was attributable to the fact that they were transgenic was simply unwarranted. This mistake has proved costly to Pusztai himself. And unfortunately, the expertise battle that sprang up around the experiments has obscured the importance of carrying out well-designed experiments to evaluate the food qualities of transgenic crop plants expressing proteins that have the potential of affecting human health. Lectins are clearly in this category.

Pusztai has been criticized severely for the quality of his experiments. His experiments have been attacked for their small sample sizes, the use of inappropriate statistical procedures, and the fact that a diet of raw – or even cooked – potatoes is a bad diet for rats (people too), even when supplemented with a bit of extra protein. But oddly enough, in all that has been written about these experiments, no one seems to have seen their central flaw, which was that he did not use appropriate controls. A “control” is the part of an experiment that allows the researcher to examine the consequences of just the change (in this case) or the treatment (in the case of a drug) under study. In Pusztai’s experiments, the control potatoes had a different history than the transgenic potatoes and, in particular, that history included a culture procedure that induces somaclonal variation. The likeliest source of the variation he detected – and of the differences he attributed to the fact that they contained foreign DNA – was the culture procedure itself. In order to be able to attribute the deleterious effects of the transgenic potatoes to the newly introduced gene or to some other part of the introduced DNA, he would have had to make a comparison between potatoes that had the very same history, but either had or lacked the transgenic construct. This can be done, but the study that Pusztai participated in was simply not designed for such a test.

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Calarese DA, Scanlan CN, Zwick MB, Deechongkit S, Mimura Y, Kunert R, Zhu P, Wormald MR, Stanfield RL, Roux KH, Kelly JW, Rudd PM, Dwek RA, Katinger H, Burton DR, Wilson IA (2003) Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition. Science 300:2065-71.

Carlini CR, Grossi-de-Sa MF (2002) Plant toxic proteins with insecticidal properties. A review on their potentialities as bioinsecticides. Toxicon 40:1515-39.

Down RE, Ford L, Woodhouse SD, Raemaekers RJ, Leitch B, Gatehouse JA, Gatehouse AM. (2000) Snowdrop lectin (GNA) has no acute toxic effects on a beneficial insect predator, the 2-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata L.). J. Insect. Physiol. 46:379-391.

Down RE, Ford L, Bedford SJ, Gatehouse LN, Newell C, Gatehouse JA, Gatehouse AM (2001) Influence of plant development and environment on transgene expression in potato and consequences for insect resistance. Transgenic Res. 10:223-36.

Du J, Foissac X, Carss A, Gatehouse AM, Gatehouse JA. (2000) Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens). Insect. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30:297-305.

Enserink, M. (1998) Institute copes with genetic hot potato. Science 281.1184

Enserink, M. (1999) Preliminary data touch off genetic food fight. Science. 1999 283:1094-5

Enserink, M. (1999) The Lancet scolded over Pusztai paper. Science. 286:656.

Ewen SW, Pusztai A. (1999) Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet 354:1353-4.

Fitches E, Woodhouse SD, Edwards JP, Gatehouse JA. (2001) In vitro and in vivo binding of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis; Con A) lectins within tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea) larvae; mechanisms of insecticidal action. J Insect Physiol. 47:777-787.

Fitches E, Audsley N, Gatehouse JA, Edwards JP. (2002) Fusion proteins containing neuropeptides as novel insect contol agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused allatostatin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32:1653-61.

Foissac X, Thi Loc N, Christou P, Gatehouse AM, Gatehouse JA. (2000) Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA). J. Insect. Physiol. 46:573-583.

Freed, D. (1999) Do dietary lectins cause disease? British Med. J. 318.1023-4.

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Gilljam G. (1993) Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV purified with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin induce strong immune responses. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 9:431-8.

Hammar L, Hirsch I, Machado AA, De Mareuil J, Baillon JG, Bolmont C, Chermann JC. (1995) Lectin-mediated effects on HIV type 1 infection in vitro. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 11:87-95.

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Kooyk Y, Appelmelk B, Geijtenbeek TB. (2003) A fatal attraction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV-1 target DC-SIGN to escape immune surveillance. Trends Mol Med. 9:153-9.

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Lee, K and Tyler, R. International scientists raise concerns over genetically modified food.

Naughton PJ, Grant G, Bardocz S, Pusztai A. (2000) Modulation of Salmonella infection by the lectins of Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Galanthus nivalis (GNA) in a rat model in vivo. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88:720-7.

Olsnes S, Kozlov JV (2001) Ricin. Toxicon 39:1723-8.

Patel B, Schutte R, Sporns P, Doyle J, Jewel L, Fedorak RN (2002) Potato glycoalkaloids adversely affect intestinal permeability and aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 8:340-6.

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GMO Pundit on this topic:

For a collection of comments and references on this first see

Rats fed bad diets have lots of changes in their guts, which is the best the Pundit can collect from the web and from his advisers.

but also here and here, Potatoes not perfect food, Genetic Roulette.

Academics Review on this topic

1.1—Pusztai’s Flawed Claims


Anonymous said...

You all don't mince words,

So I will. Pusztai's rats starved. Mounds and reams of data show that you can't raise healthy lab rats on just plain potatoes. Or GM potatoes, any kind of potatoes. When Irish farmers lived on potatoes alone, which most of them did during an unfortunate time, it's estimated that the average hard-working, physical-laboring potato farmer had to consume 12-18 lbs. of potatoes daily merely to supply the necessary calories. And potatoes alone are a vastly impoverished diet, I don't care how much of them you eat.

The results of rat tests reliably show, you get starving-rat results from starving rats. It's likely we know more about rat physiology and pharmacology than we know about human stuff.

It's nice to see the intricate details of the rats' biophysical misery as they suffered Pusztai's dietetic maltreatment--but--the rats *starved.*

Pusztai's *only* contribution is to reinforce what every experimenter knows about experimenting with lab animals. You starve rats, you get nasty looking results. Duh!

Most people on the net can't comprehend polysyllabics or even spell them. Just say it, like Britain's Royal Society said it, and like the Lancet said it, the rats freaking *starved*. And Pusztai starved them to make a discredited point in a botched experiment. Can saying that be so hard?

Just say it. I know you can.


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Prince Awele Odor said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Prince Awele Odor said...

The only intelligent, professional and obvious good-intention way to establish that Prof. Arpad Pusztai was wrong IS to REPEAT his experiment and make the result obtained available for other experts to analyse, evaluate and make judgment about.

As for the judgment of this "expert" at least two things should be noted: 1). The potato used as control was not grown differently contrary to the claim made by this "expert". Prof. Pusztai in the work evaluated by him noted that "ALL" considerations were the same and this included the growing of the potato. He had earlier emphasised the absolutism of sameness of growing places and factors or conditions for crops used for safety experiments. 2). Prof. Pusztai did NOT say CATEGORICALLY or definitely that differences in each GM potato's chemical compositional analysis were due to insertion. Read his report again and see that he was cautious as every good bio-science researcher should be by using the word “probably".

More necessary and important than this defence of his work and NOT him, take note also that he did two things: 1). Ask for more grants to enable him take the experiment further. 2). Challenge and encourage other experts to repeat it. These are VERY obvious signs of seriousness, confidence in his work and result, transparency, good intention and honesty, all of which are lacking in the conduct of MOST so-called "experts".

Prince Awele Odor
Independent Researcher and Public Good Promoter

PixelDialog said...

Wow.. this is pretty much one of the worst disinformation articles about Arpad Pusztai on the Internet.

Thanks to Arpad Pusztai's work we europeans have been pretty much saved for these frankenstein foods.

There are lots of both independent studies and some industry funded studies that show severe health-risk with several of these GMOs.

One of the first of such studies, which by the way was very good, was the study by Arpad Pusztai.

One of the last ones are the excellent study by professor Gilles-Eric Seralini, which in september 2012 published results from the longest toxicological study done on Monsanto's GM-maize NK603. The results show that the rats gots lots of cancer as well as serious problems with kidney and liver.

GM-maize NK603 is of type herbicide resistant. So usually this plant is sprayed with Monsanto's herbicide Roundup. Seralini showed that both the GM-maize that got sprayed and those that did not get sprayed with Roundup, caused the rats to get severly ill. This show that there is probably something fundamentally wrong with how the artificially constructed gene sequences work. This is also strong evidence that all current GMOs on the market should be widthdrawn.

More from this study here:

Independent science - GMO and Roundup can cause cancer and problems with liver and kidney:

Why is current risk assessments on GMOs flawed? Take a look at this lecture:

GMO Risk Assessments Based on Bad Science - You the Guinea Pig:

There are many examples on when things have gone wrong with those GMOs... A good way to start is here:

GMO news:

GMO videos:

And here:
GMO health risks:

Also see the excellent new GMO-documentary...

GENETIC ROULETTE - The Gamble of Our Lives:

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you can also can him with +2348166206623

jennifer lewis said...

After I came out with the news last June that a cancer doctor told me I had prostrate cancer and suggested a high frequency treatment that is not approved in America and could only be done in Mexico at the cost of $25,000, I immediately looked at alternatives. I contacted my nephew in Vancouver, who was about to become a doctor, and he suggested I meet with a Dr. Rick in Victoria, BC. That doctor changed my diet and put me on supplements, and within a year I brought my PSA numbers down drastically and eliminated the cancer threat. I also treated the condition with hemp oil (hash oil). With the diet, the supplements and the hash oil, plus a session with a world-renowned healer, Adam Dream-healer, I’m cancer-free. That’s right, I kicked cancer’s ass! So the magic plant does cure cancer with the right diet and supplements. I’m due for another blood test, MRI, etc., but I feel the best I’ve felt in years. And now for a celebration joint of the finest Kush
for all cancer patient that live in Europe, America and Canada region, get your Hemp oil from: or

anonymous said...

hello world,
i want to inform you all that there is a solution to all sickness. i have been cure of HIV by DR OKO the great herbalist healer. i saw the email of this DR online and how a young man share a testimony about him that this man cure his sickness at first i thought it was a scam but my friend told me to give him a trial actually i contacted him and did what he ask me to do, and he gave me his medicine and directed me on how to use, i follows his instruction,and he told me to go for check up after two weeks to confirm if his herbal medicine truly work, then after two weeks i went to the hospital to confirm if i was still positive to my greatest surprise i am heal from my hiv sickness. now i want to recommend DR OKO to every sick person out there to contact him and trust him. here is the email of this great healer: or phone him: +2347032884728
mrs cordilia

flora rufer said...


I am flora rufer,i am from San Francisco,in USA,my Facebook Username is flora rufer you can also add me. i want to use this medium to testify of how i got cured from HIV AIDS, HIV AIDS is known not to have a cure, i contacted this disease in 2012, i have done all my best to get cured from this disease but all to no avail until a friend of mine told me about doctor oosa herbal home on the internet who helps people cure any kind of diseases including HIV AIDS, Cancer, Herpes etc, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contacted this herbal doctor he helped me with his herbal medicine and i was healed within (13days) and i went for a medical checkup and my doctor confirm it that i am HIV negative.Contact this grate herbal doctor for any kind of disease or ailment via this email

flora rufer said...


I am flora rufer,i am from San Francisco,in USA,my Facebook Username is flora rufer you can also add me. i want to use this medium to testify of how i got cured from HIV AIDS, HIV AIDS is known not to have a cure, i contacted this disease in 2012, i have done all my best to get cured from this disease but all to no avail until a friend of mine told me about doctor oosa herbal home on the internet who helps people cure any kind of diseases including HIV AIDS, Cancer, Herpes etc, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contacted this herbal doctor he helped me with his herbal medicine and i was healed within (13days) and i went for a medical checkup and my doctor confirm it that i am HIV negative.Contact this grate herbal doctor for any kind of disease or ailment via this email

Dr Ebute said...

Contact Dr Ebute, for any kind of problem...
such as
I wish i have found this spell caster earlier before spending my money on
spell without result.His powers are really amazing and i enjoyed the
satisfaction i gained from using his spell. He is really gifted with powers
to help people with their various problems. His email is called him on his phone number +2348071145063

Dr Idialu said...

I was been suffering hard ship from HIV/AIDS since 9yrs now, and i happen to have 2 kids for my husband, and now we cannot proceed to have another kids all because of my disease and now i have do all what a human like i and my husband can do just to get my disease healed, i have went to several places to seek for help not even one person could ever help, until i melt a comment on the daily news paper that was commented by Miss Marilyn about how this powerful traditional doctor help her get cured of the disease (HIV-AIDS) " my fellow beloved" i firstly taught having a help from a spiritual traditional healer was a wrong idea, but i think of these, will i continue to stress on these disease all day when i have someone to help me save my life?" so i gather all my faiths and put in all interest to contact him through his Email address at , so after i have mailed him of helping get my disease cured, i respond to me fast as possible that i should not be afraid, that he is a truthful and powerful doctor which i firstly claimed him to be. So after all set has been done, he promise me that i will be healed but on a condition that i provide him some items and obeyed all his oracle said. I did all by accepting his oracle fact and only to see that the following week Dr Okwyzil, mail me on my mail box that my work is successfully done with his powers, i was first shocked and later arise to be the happiest woman on earth after i have concluded my final test on the hospital by my doctor that i am now HIV- Negative. My papers for check are with me and now i am happy and glad for his miraculous help and power.With these i must to everyone who might seek for any help, either for HIV cure or much more to contact him now at these following email now,Email: " sir thank you so much for your immediate cure of my disease, i must say for curing my disease, i owe you in return. Thanks and be blessed sir.My name is hope His Email address . or you can contact his phone number+2349030387805 or +2348130184704 call,GOD BEBBG YOU SIR

Dr Ebute said...

Contact Dr Ebute, for any kind of problem...
such as
I wish i have found this spell caster earlier before spending my money on
spell without result.His powers are really amazing and i enjoyed the
satisfaction i gained from using his spell. He is really gifted with powers
to help people with their various problems. His email is called him on his phone number +2348071145063

Solution Priest said...

Please, read my experiences and testimony here.. I was married for 7years to my husband and all of a sudden, another woman came into the picture he started hating me and he was abusive. but i still loved him with all my heart and wanted him at all cost then he filed for divorce my whole life was turning apart and i didn’t know what to do he moved out of the house and abandoned the kids so someone told me about trying spiritual means to get my husband back and introduced me to a spell caster so i decided to try it reluctantly. although i didn’t believe in all those things then when he did the special prayers and spell, after 2days, my husband came back and was pleading he had realized his mistakes I just couldn’t believe it, anyway we are back together now and we are happy in case anyone needs this man, here is his email address SOLUTIONPRIEST238@GMAIL.COM . His spells is for a better life. His name is Dr. MATHA OLUSE Email address: SOLUTIONPRIEST238@GMAIL.COM or call his direct line +2348106139395 Good luck...!


Am from England, Oxford,UK ...HIV has been ongoing in my family for long..I lost both parents to HIV and it is so much pain has not been able to get over. As we all know medically, there is no solution or cure for HIV and the cost for Medication is very expensive. Someone introduced me to a man (Native Medical Practitioner) in oxford. I showed the man all my Tests and Results and I told him have already diagnosed with HIV and have spent thousands of dollars on medication. I said I will like to try him cause someone introduced me to him. He asked me sorts of questions and I answered him correctly. To cut the story short, He gave me some medicinal soaps and some herbs(have forgot the name he called them) and he thought me how am going to use them all. At first I was skeptical but I just gave it a try. I was on his Medication for 2 weeks and I used all the soaps and herbs according to his prescription. That he will finish the rest himself. And I called him 3 days after, I arrived and I told him what is the next thing he said, he has been expecting my call. He told me to visit my doctor for another test. Honestly speaking, i never believe all he was saying until after the test when my doctor mention the statement that am, HIV negative and the doctor started asking me how do I do it....Am telling this story in case anyone may need this man’s help. He is the Great Dr Dr BENEDICT here is via email address(}

So,if you are in a similar problem or any kind of problems you can also contact him via his email(}he is the solution to all your problems and predicaments in life.his email again is{}.

(1) If you want your ex back.
(2) If you want to be promoted in your office.
(3) If you want a child.
(4) if you have any sickness like ( H I V/AIDS ),(CANCER) or any sickness
(5) if you are deaf and blind and you want to see and hear again.

ONCE again,his email address is{}

Ebose Tale said...

I Am Mrs Ruth Mariana, i live in Texas (USA).
Truthfully, i was tested HIV + positive last 3years. I keep on managing the drugs i usually purchase from the health care agency to keep me healthy and strenghtful, i tried all i can too make this disease leave me alone, but unfortunately, it keep on eating up my life, this is what i caused myself, for allowing my fiance make sex to me unsecurely without protection, although i never knew he is HIV positive. So last few 4days i came in contact with a lively article on the internet on how this Powerful Herbal Healer get her well and healed. So as a patient i knew this will took my life 1 day, and i need to live with other friends and relatives too. So i copied out the Dr ebosetale the traditional healer's email id: and I mailed him immediately, in a little while he mail me back that i was welcome to his temple home whereby all what i seek for are granted. I was please at that time. And i continue with him, he took some few details from me and told me that he shall get back to me as soon as he is through with my work. I was very happy as heard that from him. So Yesterday, as i was just coming from my friends house, Dr ebosetale called me to go for checkup in the hospital and see his marvelous work that it is now HIV negative, i was very glad to hear that from him, so i quickly rush down to the nearest hospital to found out, only to hear from my hospital doctor called Browning Lewis that i am now HIV NEGATIVE. I jump up at him with the test note, he ask me how does it happen and i reside to him all i went through with Dr ebosetale. I am now glad, so i am a gentle type of person that need to share this testimonies to everyone who seek for healing, because once you get calm and quiet, so the disease get to finish your life off. So i will advice you contact him today for your healing at the above details: Email ID: CONTACT HIM NOW TO SAVE YOUR AS HE IS SO POWERFUL AND HELPFUL TO ALL THAT HAVE THIS SICKNESS.

Dr Aziza said...

My name is Williams Lender am from UK i am very happy for the wonderful work dr Aziza has done for me i got married to my lovely husband last year and we have a lovely son. things was going well with us and we are living happily. until one day my husband started behaving in a strange manner i could not understand, i was very confused with the way he treat me and my son. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was sad and also frustrated i did not know what to do,i was sick for more than a week because of the divorce. i love him so much he his everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told one of my child hood friend and she told me to contact a spell caster that she has listen to one woman who testify about dr Aziza and she has been hearing about him that i should try him i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing but i just say i should try if something will come out of it. i contacted Dr Aziza for the return of my husband to me, he told me that my husband have been taken by another woman. that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want to divorce me. then he told me that he has to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and my son, he casted the spell and after a day my husband came back home and started apologizing he said that he love me so much that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that Dr Aziza casted on him that make him come back to me,right now am so happy again. thank you Dr Aziza for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. this is to every one who is facing divorces or heart break by your lover i want you to contact him now because he can do it for you his powers is great and dont have any side effect in the future contact him through his mail; contact him now and your problems will be solve for ever.once again thanks to dr AZIZA.

Update said...

Greetings to you all, i am here today on this forum giving a life testimony on how Dr.Erick has cured me from HIV Virus, i have been stocked in bondage with this virus for almost 1years now, i have tried different means to get this sickness out of my body i also heard there was no cure to the virus, all the possible ways i tried did not work out for me, i do have the faith that i was going to be cured one day, as i was a strong believer in God and also in miracles, One day as i was on the internet i came across some amazing testimonies concerning how Dr Erick has cured different people from various sickness with his Herbal Herbs Medicine, they all advised we contact Dr Erick for any problem, with that i had the courage and i contacted Dr.Erick i told him about my Sickness, He told me not to worry that he was going to prepare some Herbal Medicine for me, after some time in communication with Dr.Erick, he finally prepared for me some herbs which he sent to me and he also gave me prescriptions on how to take them, My good friends after taking Dr.Erick Herbs for some weeks i started to experience changes in me and from there, I noticed my Herpes Virus was no longer in my body, as i have also gone for test, Today i am fit and healthy to live life again, I am so happy for the good work of Dr.Erick in my life, Friends if you are having any time of disease problem kindly email Dr.Erick on {} or call him on +2348112237749} God Bless you Sir

Kpelede Solution said...

Hello my name is TRACIA let me testify to the general public how i got cured by Dr KPELEDE healing spell from (HERPES), I have been diagnosed of HAPATITIS B (HERPES) for good 8 years and I was almost going to the end of my life due to the constant pain, especially in my knees.all I have in my mind is let me just give up because life was no longer interested to me any more but I just pray for God every day to accept my soul when ever I die, luckily to me my kid sister ran to me that she found a doctor in the internet who can cure (HAPATITIS C HERPES,CANCER,And HIV/AIDS )she helped me out on everything, the great Dr KPELEDE only ask for my picture, so he can cast a spell on me from his temple.. after two days I started getting more stronger my blood started flowing normally i started experiencing changes all over me as the great Dr KPELEDE assured me that i have been cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, if you have HAPATITIS B HERPES CANCER HIV/AIDS any kind of illness i advice you all to contact him on or call +2347038111854

Tanya Albert said...

Am Tanya Albert from United State Join me celebrate this day which my Lord God has made for using this great and powerful healer called Dr Ekpiku that cured my HIV disease which has been eating me up for over 6years now without solutions, i tried looking for solutions on line, and through hospital, they keep on giving me orientations about drugs that can extend my years. now since Dr Ekpiku has helped me to cure my disease with the use of herbal remedy and knowledge of his forefathers everything has been going well now, i owe you greatly for healing me so if anybody need is help or you also want to get cured you can also contact him on his email address: or THESE ARE THE THINGS Dr. Ekpiku. . HERPES . HIV/AIDS . CANCER

Kind Regards...

Dr Ebute said...

Contact Dr Ebute, for any kind of problem...
such as
I wish i have found this spell caster earlier before spending my money on
spell without result.His powers are really amazing and i enjoyed the
satisfaction i gained from using his spell. He is really gifted with powers
to help people with their various problems. His email is called him on his phone number +2348071145063